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Little Germany, (historic) E7-10 and Avenue A, and, Avenue B.
The Little Germany neighborhood began to decline in the late 19th century from the pressure of non-German immigrants settling in the area, and the loss of second-generation families to other German-American communities, a decline that was exascerbated in 1904 when the General Slocum disaster wiped out the social core of the neighborhood. Little Germany,known in German as Kleindeutschland and Deutschländle and called Dutchtown by contemporary non-Germans, was a densely populated German immigrant neighborhood on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City.
Little Germany Growth:
At the beginning of Little Germany in the '70s, after a decade of continuously rising immigration, Kleindeutschland (the German city in the ever-growing Cosmopolis) was in fullest bloom. Kleindeutschland, called Dutchtown by the Irish, consisted of 400 blocks formed by some six avenues and nearly forty streets. Tompkins Square formed pretty much the center. Avenue B, occasionally called the German Broadway, was the commercial artery. Each basement was a workshop, every first floor was a store, and the partially roofed sidewalks were markets for goods of all sorts. Avenue A was the street for beer halls, oyster saloons and groceries. The Bowery was the western border (anything further west was totally foreign), but it was also the amusement and loafing district. There all the artistic treats, from classical drama to puppet comedies, were for sale.[
Beginning in the 1840s, Little Germany was a haven for a large numbers of German immigrants entering the United States provided a constant population influx for Little Germany. In the 1850s alone, 800,000 Germans passed through New York. The German immigrants differed as they usually were educated and had marketable skills in crafts. More than half of the bakers and cabinet makers were Germans or of German origin, and many Germans also worked in the construction business. Educated Germans were important players in the creation of Trade unions, and were also often politically active.
Germans tended to stay more to other immigrants at the time, such as the Irish, and in fact those from a particular German state preferred to live together. In 1845, Little Germany was already the largest German-American neighborhood in New York; by 1855, its German population had more than quadrupled, displacing the American-born workers who had first moved into the new housing, and at the beginning of the 20th century, it was home to almost 50,000 people. From a core in the riverside 11th Ward, it expanded to encompass most of the 10th, 13th, and 17th Wards also: the same area that later became known as the Jewish Lower East Side. Tompkins Square Park, in what is now known as Alphabet City, was an important public space that the Germans called the Weisse Garten. There were beer gardens, sport clubs, libraries, choirs, shooting clubs, German theatres, German schools, German churches, and German synagogues. A large number of factories and small workshops operated in the neighborhood, initially in the interiors of blocks, reached by alleyways. There were major commercial streets including department stores. Stanley Nadel quotes a description of the neighborhood at its peak in the 1870s:
General Slocum disaster:
The disaster accelerated an exodus that was already well underway. Some bereaved parents, spouses, children, and friends committed suicide. The desire to find a culprit led to conflicting public opinion, and family quarrels about the distribution of money from a Relief Fund among survivors led the society of Little Germany to turn sour.
Disaster struck Little Germany on June 15, 1904. St Mark's Evangelical Lutheran Church had organized their 17th annual picnic to commemorate the end of the school year. A large paddlewheeler, the General Slocum, was chartered for a cruise on the East River to a picnic site on Long Island. Over 1,300 passengers, mostly women and children, participated in the event. Shortly after departing, a fire started in a storage compartment in the forward section. Although the ship was equipped with lifeboats and preservers, both were in disrepair. The inadequacy of the safety equipment, compounded with the poor leadership of Captain William Van Schaick, caused an estimated 1,021 passengers to die by fire or drowning. Although only one percent of Little Germany's population was killed by the disaster, those lost were members of the most established families, the social foundation of Little Germany's community, and the extent of the disaster had enormous repercussions on the St Mark's parish.
Little Germany Decline:
Near the end of the 19th century, between 1870 and 1900, second-generation German-Americans began to leave the old neighborhood to resettle in Brooklyn, in particular in Williamsburg, and farther uptown on the East Side of Manhattan, in what would come to be known as Yorkville. At the same time, the press of new mass immigration into the city of not only Germans whose numbers peaked in the 1880s – and Irish, but also large numbers of Russian and eastern European Jews and Italians from the south of that country caused Little Germany to contract, so that rather than taking up a large portion of the East Side below 23rd Street, it was eventually bounded by 14th Street on the north, Grand Street on the south, Broadway on the west, and the East River on the east. As well, the new mix of immigrants coming in changed the character of the area, so that what had been Kleindeiutschland began to transform into the Lower East Side. The Slocum disaster accelerated the process, as in its wake, much of the remaining German population moved, to Yorkville and elsewhere.
The General Slocum disaster was a key factor in hastening the end of Little Germany, but for decades before that event, the neighborhood had been contracting in size, both in population and in area.